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Megabats


20/06/2017 - page -  pics need adding


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Little red megabat (flying-fox) Black Megabat (flying-fox) Grey-headed Megabat (flying-fox) Spectacled Megabat (flying-fox)

Flying-foxes are mammals and are members of the Pteropodidae or fruit bat family. They have the largest body size of all bats.
The grey-headed flying-fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) is the largest member of the family. Its wingspan can reach one metre and it can weigh up to one kilogram.
Flying-foxes have large eyes, which are highly adapted for day and night vision and particularly suited to recognising colours at night. Colour recognition is important for flying-foxes when searching for food.
There are four species native to mainland Australia: the little red flying-fox, the black flying-fox, the spectacled flying-fox and the grey-headed flying-fox.

They are called bats, megabats, fruit bats and flying foxes – it’s all the same animal.  This is confusing because they are no relation to foxes, fruit is not usually their main food, and they are very different from other members of the bat family.  The bat family can be divided approximately into two groups: the megabats (flying foxes are megabats) and microbats (the little ones that are talked about in stories from Europe and USA).  megabats do not occur naturally in Europe or USA, so all those spooky bat stories have nothing to do with our megabats.

In many ways megabats are more biologically similar to monkeys and humans than they are to the micro bats. They do not use sound, or, echolocation to “see” but have excellent eyesight like ours in daylight and they see better than we do at night. They do not hibernate in winter, as is common with micro bats.  Most of them prefer to roost in trees and avoid caves and buildings, so will not come into your house, as do micros.  They are principally vegetarian, whereas micro bats commonly eat insects. They certainly do not suck blood like the “vampire” bats that are found in Central America. There are more differences but these are some of the obvious ones.
Maybe they are called fruit bats because they look like dark fruit hanging in trees.  Unfortunately this name gives the impression that they are big fruit eaters but in fact concentrate more on nectar and pollen. People are just more likely to notice what they are eating when it is fruit, because we like to eat fruit too.

Little red megabats visit occasionally in summer when food supplies are short in their inland range. Australia’s fourth main type, the Spectacled megabat, is never found naturally this far south of its North Queensland range.

If you enjoy scientifically exact names you may like to know that these bats are of the order Chiroptera, which means hand wing.  They are Pteropus poliocephalus, or Grey-headed, the Blacks are called Pteropus Alecto, the Little reds are Pteropus Scapulatus and the Spectacled are Pteropus conspicillatus.

Many hang low in the trees and are in clear view, and often they do not fly away as you approach.
They seem to know how they will be treated in different camps. Thus they will stay to stare back at you if you are quiet. They are not much worried by your voice but the sound of snapping branches means danger in their language.

If you stay for a while, reasonably still and quiet, they will continue their normal activities while you watch.

EYESIGHT
You can expect them to take a great deal of interest in you, and stare a lot with their big bright eyes. Their daytime eyesight is about as good as yours, and in the dark they see very much better than you do. up to 20 times.

WHY THEY DON’T STAND UP
And of course they will be hanging from their feet, head downwards. Their legs are like strong cords, with no bulky muscles, so they cannot stand. Such muscles would make them too heavy for flight. Birds are made lighter by having hollow bones, but megabats are mammals, and mammals have solid bones.

THEY ARE OUR COUSINS
They are mammals and from October to April you see them suckling their young. They do this until the baby is five or six months old, but this time varies - they are intelligent and complex so there are differences amongst them, just as there are amongst humans. In fact they are so biologically close to us that they could be classed as primates. We could regard them as close cousins, as we do monkeys.

THEY LIKE TO KEEP CLEAN
They groom frequently, licking and combing. Also, of course they are far too clever to dirty themselves with poo or pee.

how megabats poo n wee
 
 

BUSY DAYS BUT NIGHT TIME IS FOR EATING
Daytime is surprisingly busy for these animals that we usually think of as creatures of the night. You will see them fanning their wings to keep cool when it is hot, grooming, giving birth, tending young, mating, looking around, even flying around: all during daytime. However they will not be eating. When there is a food shortage, they will eat leaves during the daytime in the camp. The camp is the base from which they make their night time foraging trips. Then they prefer nectar and pollen of native trees and rain forest fruits.
Where we have cleared away their native forests they are forced to resort to trees that humans plant for their own use. Records show that appearances of megabats in orchards coincide with times when bee keepers report poor availability of blossom in the forests. But they are animals which take opportunities – they enjoy the native shrubs and trees that we plant in our gardens.

BABIES
Most babies are born in mid October after about six months gestation.  Their eyes are open and alert and they are covered in fur (except for their belly which is bare so they can get closer to mother’s warmth). Baby is ready to find his way to mother’s nipple.  He will have been born while mother was hanging head downwards as usual but her wings make a safe hammock until he grasps the nipple with his teeth and mother’s belly fur with his feet.
The mother will carry baby with her constantly for the first few weeks.  When he can keep himself warm she will leave him in the camp at night.  She leaves him in the spot where she has been roosting all day unless there has been danger in the area such as a lurking goanna.  During the day she will carry him around when she makes short flights within the camp, but she can also carry him long distances, even when he is two or three months old.  She needs to be able to do this because she needs to be able to move to wherever food can be found.  She will carry her baby to the next camp, then the next and the next, and can do this from the first night after the baby is born til the time when the baby can fly well enough to feed himself.  This will be later in January, at least. It is particularly enjoyable in late December and in January to watch the babies around the edges of the camp at dusk, practicing their flying.

NOMADS
Megabats follow food supplies. So if we have large numbers, it is because local forests are in blossom with good food.  They can move great distances in short times. From 10km up to 150km in a night. One known megabat had traveled from Sydney to Melbourne in one week.
The animals typically move from one traditional campsite to the next.  They appear to have long memories for these traditional sites and may even have their own territory in each one that they visit.  The females move about more than the males, generally.

HEADING FOR EXTINCTION
In 2001 Grey-headed megabats were classified as vulnerable by both the federal and NSW Government. Regular counts have shown that there are less than five hundred thousand Greys in existence and showed that the population dropped by 30% between 1990 and 2000.
The population will always be limited by the food supply in their habitat, and we are constantly clearing their habitat because we like to live in the same places.  Loss of habitat is glaringly obvious in the NSW and Queensland coastal strips where there has been huge human settlement.
The fact that megabats are slow breeders, producing only one baby each year is not primarily relevant to the survival of the species because the habitat is the limiting factor.  No matter how many babies are produced in a year only the number that can be fed in their habitat will survive.  If you want to do something towards survival of the species, plant native feed trees.

bellingen.com / flyingfoxes - bellingen.com/flyingfoxes


Bats drinking in river
At dusk, after a hot day with no rain, megabats drink in the river before they fly out for their night of foraging.  The hotter the weather is, and the longer the time since there has been rain, the larger the number of megabats that will be drinking.  As the heat of the weather rises to extreme levels megabats come out earlier and earlier before dusk.  When the heat is at dangerous levels the animals will be out in full daylight.
First, the megabats gather in the trees along the riverside, then they may fly up and down the stretch of river several times before they swoop to skim the water. White sprays of water spurt up, then the animal flaps its wings and rises, with its belly fur full of water.
When the weather is very hot they often snatch a mouth full of water from their fur as they rise, but all of them fly to a tree nearby to lick their fur thoroughly.
They may skim a second time, to collect a second drink.  Some clever ones save themselves the effort of skimming and lick at other animals who land dripping nearby.
It must take energy and skill to skim and rise again successfully.  Youngsters can be seen making beginner efforts, perhaps managing only to dip their feet and flutter tentatively.  In events of dangerous heat debilitated animals are not always successful in rising from the water.  When they fall in they can swim, with a stroke that looks just like butterfly.
Megabats also routinely drink by licking dew from leaves.

WE NEED BATS.
Without them our forests would sicken and die.
Many Australian hardwood trees are sensitive to inbreeding. For healthy propagation they need to be fertilised by creatures that travel great distances during their feeding, as megabats do. And the trees release their nectar at night, neatly organised, when megabats feed. Birds and insects do not have long-range ability in spreading pollen, and smaller creatures are less able to spread seed over long distances than are large flying mammals.
megabats services become more and more valuable as we clear more and more forest, leaving only far- scattered pockets. megabats are necessary to connect up these remnants.
In fact we must have megabats in large numbers. To make them do their forest work there must be so many that competition forces them to travel widely, pollinating and spreading seed as they feed.
When dealing with difficulties that arise from the presence of megabats it must be kept in mind that megabats are essential animals in this part of Australia, doing essential forest work that we would not be able to do ourselves even with expenditure of millions of dollars.  Without megabats we would not have forests as we know them, and would lose commercial hardwood varieties of trees in particular.  But we would lose more than the forests.  We would also lose the animals that depend on these forests, such as koalas and countless other species
In earlier times the animals had a choice of several campsites.  They could use areas in turn, allowing each area times for regrowth of worn trees. The alternative sites have now been cleared for farming.
Bats can stay at a camps for months, years or tens of years. Moving on to another camp and not return to the recent camp for months, years or tens of years. Clearing has also impacted where bats can roost. Thus they may be packed more tightly than they might choose and cause heavier wear on the trees.
Due to these changes made by humans, the vegetation gets regrettably hard wear. however these trees are adapted to such wear and are not killed by it. Locals worry about damage to the vegetation but it is weeds and storms combined that do the worst damage to existing trees, choking and breaking them, and uprooting them completely.
Before the mid eighties it was official policy to treat megabats as a pest species and to try to remove them. Shooting was encouraged and even subsidised.  The local council spent money on noise-making equipment in an attempt to scare the bats away.  These efforts were ineffective and also were strongly opposed by many people in the community.
In 1985 policy disturbance stopped.  Many people recognized the essential part that the megabats play in the forest – for Australian hardwood species they are more important for survival than the birds and the bees.  In 2001 both the state and the federal government's listed Grey-headed megabat as vulnerable.

bellingen.com / flyingfoxes - bellingen.com/flyingfoxes

Megabats constitute the suborder Megachiroptera, family Pteropodidae of the order Chiroptera (bats). They are also called fruit batsold world fruit bats, or megabats.

The megabat, contrary to its name, is not always large: the smallest species is 6 centimetres (2.4 in) long and thus smaller than some microbats.[1] The largest reach 40 centimetres (16 in) in length and attain a wingspan of 150 centimetres (4.9 ft), weighing in at nearly 1 kilogram (2.2 lb). Most fruit bats have large eyes, allowing them to orient visually in the twilight of dusk and inside caves and forests.

Their sense of smell is excellent. In contrast to the microbats, the fruit bats do not use echolocation (with one exception, the Egyptian fruit bat Rousettus egyptiacus, which uses high-pitched clicks to navigate in caves).

Megabats are frugivorous or nectarivorous, i.e., they eat fruits or lick nectar from flowers. Often the fruits are crushed and only the juices consumed. The teeth are adapted to bite through hard fruit skins. Large fruit bats must land in order to eat fruit, while the smaller species are able to hover with flapping wings in front of a flower or fruit.

Frugivorous bats aid the distribution of plants (and therefore, forests) by carrying the fruits with them and spitting the seeds or eliminating them elsewhere. Nectarivores actually pollinate visited plants. They bear long tongues that are inserted deep into the flower; pollen thereby passed to the bat is then transported to the next blossom visited, pollinating it. This relationship between plants and bats is a form of mutualism known as chiropterophily. Examples of plants that benefit from this arrangement include the baobabs of the genus Adansonia and the sausage tree (Kigelia).
Bats are usually thought to belong to one of two monophyletic groups, a view that is reflected in their classification into two suborders (Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera). According to this hypothesis, all living megabats and microbats are descendants of a common ancestor species that was already capable of flight.

However, there have been other views, and a vigorous debate persists to this date. For example, in the 1980s and 1990s, some researchers proposed (based primarily on the similarity of the visual pathways) that the Megachiroptera were in fact more closely affiliated with the primates than the Microchiroptera, with the two groups of bats having therefore evolved flight via convergence (see Flying primates theory). However, a recent flurry of genetic studies confirms the more longstanding notion that all bats are indeed members of the same clade, the Chiroptera. Other studies have recently suggested that certain families of microbats (possibly the horseshoe bats, mouse-tailed bats and the false vampires) are evolutionarily closer to the fruit bats than to other microbats.

Flying-foxes are large bats that feed on plant products such as fruit, flowers, pollen and nectar. They generally congregate in camps made up of large numbers of individuals, but some also roost singly or in small groups. Camps can be found in a range of vegetation types, usually close to water in an area with a dense understorey.
Flying-foxes are highly mobile, ranging up to 40 km from their camps at night to feed. They also move up to hundreds of kilometres to follow the flowering and fruiting of their food sources.
Flying-foxes play a vital role in keeping our ecosystems in good health. They pollinate flowers and disperse seeds as they forage on the nectar and pollen of eucalypts, melaleucas and banksias and on the fruits of rainforest trees and vines. Flying-foxes are important in ensuring the survival of our threatened rainforests such as the Wet Tropics and Gondwana Rainforests, both listed as World Heritage sites.

Seven species of flying-fox are found in Australia.

Status and distribution of Australian flying-foxes

Grey-headed mega bat
(Pteropus poliocephalus) Vulnerable
Australia's only endemic flying-fox species. Occurs in the coastal belt from Rockhampton in central Queensland to Adelaide in South Australia.

Spectacled mega bat

(Pteropus conspicillatus subsp. conspicillatus) Vulnerable
Restricted to tropical rainforest areas between Ingham and Cooktown, and between the McIlwraith and Iron Ranges of Cape York.

Black mega bat

(Pteropus alecto subsp.gouldii)
Occur around the northern coast of Australia (Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland and northern NSW) and inland wherever permanent water is found in rivers.

Little red mega bat (Pteropus scapulatus)

From Shark Bay in WA through northern Australia, and down the east coast to northern Victoria, ranging far inland (the species has been recorded in northern South Australia on two occasions).
  • Large-eared flying-fox (Pteropus macrotissubsp. epularius)
Not listed Least concernThe only known location of this species in Australia is a mangrove island beside Boigu Island, and Saibai Island (both within a few kilometres of the New Guinea coast).
  • Christmas Island flying-fox (Pteropus melanotussubsp. natalis)
Restricted to Christmas Island
  • Bare-backed fruit bat (Dobsonia magnasubspp. moluccensis)
Most of north, north-central and east Cape York.
Sources:
  • Hall, L. & G. Richards (2000). Flying foxes: Fruit and Blosson Bats of Australia. Sydney, NSW: University of NSW.
  • Van Dyck, S. & R. Strahan (2008). The Mammals of Australia, Third Edition. Sydney: Reed New Holland.

Why are some flying-foxes nationally protected?

The grey-headed flying-fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) and spectacled flying foxes (Pteropus conspicillatus subsp. conspicillatus) are listed under national environmental law (Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, the EPBC Act). The numbers of Grey-headed and spectacled flying-foxes have declined significantly over recent times, often as a result of habitat clearance caused by human development.
Counts of grey-headed flying-foxes conducted in 1989 and 1998-2001 indicated a 30 per cent decline in the national population. This qualified the species for listing as a vulnerable species under national environmental law.
Counts of spectacled flying-fox conducted between 1998 and 2000 indicated the spectacled flying-fox population declined from 153,000 in 1998 to about 80,000 in 1999 and 2000. Modelling identified that the species was likely to be extinct in less than 100 years due to the high levels of death associated with human interactions. This made them eligible for listing as vulnerable under national environmental law.
It is important to remember that state governments, irrelevant of a national listing status, consider all species of mega bats to be protected species.

What does this national protection mean?

Activities likely to have a significant impact on the grey-headed or spectacled flying-fox must be referred to the Australian Government. If you are not sure if a proposed activity is likely to have a significant impact on these mega bats, please contact the department to discuss it by emailing epbc.referrals@environment.gov.au or phoning 1800 803 772.
Substantial penalties of up to $5.5 million or up to seven years imprisonment apply for undertaking an activity, to which the EPBC Act applies, without approval. For more information about what this national protection means please refer to:
At some state government levels it is an offence to kill or injure flying-foxes, or to interfere with their camps. If you are proposing the above you are advised to check your obligations under state legislation before undertaking any activities that may kill or injure flying-foxes or interfere with camps.

Where can I get more information on flying-foxes?

Further information on the nationally listed grey-headed and spectacled flying-foxes can be found in the Species Profiles and Threats database (SPRAT profiles) for these species. There is also a national recovery plan in place for the spectacled flying-fox, containing details of the species' biology, threats and recovery objectives.
A recovery plan for the grey-headed flying-fox is being prepared.
The following state and territory government websites also have information on the ecology and biology of flying-foxes:

How can flying-foxes be managed in accordance with national environmental law?

Flying-fox camps can be large and may occur in trees that are close to houses and livestock. Residents who live near camps often have concerns regarding noise, damage to vegetation and hygiene associated with flying-fox camps.
Activities that are likely to have a significant impact on a nationally threatened species need to be referred to the Australian Government to ensure they are consistent with national environment law. This may include proposals to disperse flying-fox colonies of a nationally threatened species, move or shift camp boundaries, or clearance of important roosting or foraging habitat for a nationally threatened species.
Some activities to manage problematic flying-fox camps may be considered unlikely to have a significant impact and may not need to be submitted to the Australian Government for approval. Examples may include minor modifications to habitat, such as creating buffers by trimming or removing vegetation using appropriate timing and methodology, planting non-roost plant species, or re-vegetating key areas to improve or create additional habitat away from affected areas.
Measures can also be implemented to deter colonies from establishing in inappropriate areas by using noise and visual methods. However, once a camp is established at a site, disturbance using noise and visual methods may result in a significant impact and would require a referral to the Australian Government.
It is recommended that you seek advice from the department before undertaking major habitat modifications or other activities.
To help inform the public about how to live with flying-foxes, the New South Wales, Queensland and Victorian Governments have developed internet sites which may help to answer any questions you have.

How have problematic flying-fox camps been managed in the past?

Case study: Yarra Bend, Victoria
The Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) is the only organisation to have undertaken a dispersal of flying-foxes in Australia which has resulted in the total abandonment of the camp from the original location and the establishment of a new camp at a new location in suitable habitat.
The DSE undertook a dispersal of the Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne camp in 2003 which resulted in the colony moving to the nearby Yarra Bend Park in Kew and to an existing camp in Geelong.
In 2011, DSEWPaC considered a referral from DSE for the 'nudging' (the use of disturbance measures to manage / shift camp boundaries, rather than a dispersal) of the Yarra Bend camp in order to address public concerns with the impacts of this camp on nearby residents.
A Standard Operating Procedure has been developed for these activities that balances the interests of residents with the protection of the grey-headed flying-fox. This includes mitigation measures such as stop-work triggers, no-go zones, various monitoring and reporting protocols and specifications around the timing of the nudging activities to ensure that the breeding cycle of the species is not disrupted.
The Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne dispersal illustrates the ongoing and adaptive nature of dispersals and highlights the difficulty in defining what actually can be considered a success. The dispersal of flying-foxes from the Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne resolved the problems around impacting upon heritage values.
However it has raised new issues to be managed, including local resident concerns at the new Yarra Bend location. Cost is also a factor - the Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne dispersal required thousands of person-hours of effort and approximately $3 million in expenditure.
There is still much to be learnt about how to manage flying-fox dispersals so that they are successful. Monitoring currently forms an important component of dispersal guidelines being developed by DSEWPaC in conjunction with species experts.


List of species

The family Pteropodidae is divided into seven subfamilies with 186 total extant species, represented by 44 - 46 genera:
FAMILY PTEROPODIDAE
  • Subfamily Nyctimeninae
    • Genus Nyctimene - tube-nosed fruit bats
      • Broad-striped Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene aello
      • Common Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene albiventer
      • Pallas's Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene cephalotes
      • Dark Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene celaeno
      • Mountain Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene certans
      • Round-eared Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene cyclotis
      • Dragon Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene draconilla
      • Keast's Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene keasti
      • Island Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene major
      • Malaita Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene malaitensis
      • Demonic Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene masalai
      • Lesser Tube-nosed Bat, Nyctimene minutus
      • Philippine Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene rabori
      • Eastern Tube-nosed Bat, Nyctimene robinsoni
      • Nendo Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene sanctacrucis (early 20th century †)
      • Umboi Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Nyctimene vizcaccia
    • Genus Paranyctimene
      • Lesser Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Paranyctimene raptor
      • Steadfast Tube-nosed Fruit Bat, Paranyctimene tenax
  • Subfamily Cynopterinae
    • Genus Aethalops - pygmy fruit bats
      • Borneo Fruit Bat, Aethalops aequalis
      • Pygmy Fruit Bat, Aethalops alecto
    • Genus Alionycteris
      • Mindanao Pygmy Fruit Bat, Alionycteris paucidentata
    • Genus Balionycteris
      • Spotted-winged Fruit Bat, Balionycteris maculata
    • Genus Chironax
      • Black-capped Fruit Bat, Chironax melanocephalus
    • Genus Cynopterus - dog-faced fruit bats or short-nosed fruit bats
      • Lesser Short-nosed Fruit Bat, Cynopterus brachyotis
      • Horsfield’s Fruit Bat, Cynopterus horsfieldii
      • Peters’s Fruit Bat, Cynopterus luzoniensis
      • Minute Fruit Bat, Cynopterus minutus
      • Nusatenggara Short-nosed Fruit Bat, Cynopterus nusatenggara
      • Greater Short-nosed Fruit Bat, Cynopterus sphinx
      • Indonesian Short-nosed Fruit Bat, Cynopterus titthaecheilus
    • Genus Dyacopterus - Dayak fruit bats
      • Brooks’s Dyak Fruit Bat, Dyacopterus brooksi
      • Rickart's Dyak Fruit Bat, Dyacopterus rickarti
      • Dayak Fruit Bat, Dyacopterus spadiceus
    • Genus Haplonycteris
      • Fischer's Pygmy Fruit Bat, Haplonycteris fischeri
    • Genus Latidens
      • Salim Ali's Fruit Bat, Latidens salimalii
    • Genus Megaerops
      • Tailless Fruit Bat, Megaerops ecaudatus
      • Javan Tailless Fruit Bat, Megaerops kusnotoi
      • Ratanaworabhan's Fruit Bat, Megaerops niphanae
      • White-collared Fruit Bat, Megaerops wetmorei
    • Genus Otopteropus
      • Luzon Fruit Bat, Otopteropus cartilagonodus
    • Genus Penthetor
      • Dusky Fruit Bat, Penthetor lucasi
    • Genus Ptenochirus - musky fruit bats
      • Greater Musky Fruit Bat, Ptenochirus jagori
      • Lesser Musky Fruit Bat, Ptenochirus minor
    • Genus Sphaerias
      • Blanford's Fruit Bat, Sphaerias blanfordi
    • Genus Thoopterus
      • Swift Fruit Bat, Thoopterus nigrescens
  • Subfamily Harpiyonycterinae
    • Genus Aproteles
      • Bulmer's Fruit Bat, Aproteles bulmerae
    • Genus Dobsonia - bare-backed fruit bats
      • Andersen's Bare-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia anderseni
      • Beaufort's Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia beauforti
      • Philippine Bare-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia chapmani
      • Halmahera Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia crenulata
      • Biak Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia emersa
      • Sulawesi Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia exoleta
      • Solomon's Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia inermis
      • Lesser Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia minor
      • Moluccan Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia moluccensis
      • Panniet Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia pannietensis
      • Western Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia peroni
      • New Britain Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia praedatrix
      • Greenish Naked-backed Fruit Bat, Dobsonia viridis
    • Genus Harpyionycteris
      • Sulawesi Harpy Fruit Bat, Harpyionycteris celebensis
      • Harpy Fruit Bat, Harpyionycteris whiteheadi
  • Subfamily Macroglossinae
    • Genus Macroglossus - long-tongued fruit bats
      • Long-tongued Nectar Bat, Macroglossus minimus
      • Long-tongued Fruit Bat, Macroglossus sobrinus
    • Genus Melonycteris
      • Fardoulis' Blossom Bat, Melonycteris fardoulisi
      • Black-bellied Fruit Bat, Melonycteris melanops
      • Woodford's Fruit Bat, Melonycteris woodfordi
    • Genus Notopteris - long-tailed fruit bats
      • Long-tailed Fruit Bat, Notopteris macdonaldi (Fiji and Vanuatu)
      • New Caledonia Blossom Bat, Notopteris neocaledonica (New Caledonia)
    • Genus Syconycteris - blossom bats
      • Common Blossom Bat, Syconycteris australis
      • Halmahera Blossom Bat, Syconycteris carolinae
      • Moss-forest Blossom Bat, Syconycteris hobbit
  • Subfamily Pteropodinae
    • Genus Acerodon
      • Sulawesi mega batsAcerodon celebensis
      • Talaud mega batsAcerodon humilis
      • Giant Golden-crowned mega batAcerodon jubatus
      • Palawan Fruit Bat, Acerodon leucotis
      • Sunda mega batsAcerodon mackloti
    • Genus Desmalopex
      • White-winged mega batsDesmalopex leucopterus
      • Small White-winged mega batsDesmalopex microleucopterus
    • Genus Eidolon - straw-coloured fruit bats
      • Madagascan Fruit Bat, Eidolon dupreanum
      • Straw-coloured Fruit Bat, Eidolon helvum
    • Genus Mirimiri
      • Fijian Monkey-faced Bat, Mirimiri acrodonta
    • Genus Neopteryx
      • Small-toothed Fruit Bat, Neopteryx frosti
    • Genus Pteralopex
      • Bougainville Monkey-faced Bat, Pteralopex anceps
      • Guadalcanal Monkey-faced Bat, Pteralopex atrata
      • Greater Monkey-faced Bat, Pteralopex flanneryi
      • Montane Monkey-faced Bat, Pteralopex pulchra
      • New Georgian Monkey-faced Bat, Pteralopex taki
    • Genus Pteropus - mega bats
      • P. alecto species group
        • Black mega batPteropus alecto
      • P. caniceps species group
        • Ashy-headed mega batPteropus caniceps
      • P. chrysoproctus species group
        • Silvery mega batPteropus argentatus
        • Moluccan mega batPteropus chrysoproctus
        • Makira mega batPteropus cognatus
        • Banks mega batPteropus fundatus
        • Solomons mega batPteropus rayneri
        • Rennell mega batPteropus rennelli
      • P. conspicillatus species group
        • Spectacled mega batPteropus conspicillatus
        • Ceram Fruit Bat, Pteropus ocularis
      • P. livingstonii species group
        • Aru mega batPteropus aruensis
        • Kei mega batPteropus keyensis
        • Livingstone's Fruit Bat, Pteropus livingstonii
        • Black-bearded mega batPteropus melanopogon
      • P. mariannus species group
        • Okinawa mega batPteropus loochoensis
        • Mariana Fruit Bat, Pteropus mariannus
        • Pelew mega batPteropus pelewensis
        • Kosrae mega batPteropus ualanus
        • Yap mega batPteropus yapensis
      • P. melanotus species group
        • Black-eared mega batPteropus melanotus
      • P. molossinus species group
        • Lombok mega batPteropus lombocensis
        • Caroline mega batPteropus molossinus
        • Rodrigues mega batPteropus rodricensis
      • P. neohibernicus species group
        • Great mega batPteropus neohibernicus
      • P. niger species group
        • Aldabra mega batPteropus aldabrensis
        • Mauritianmega batPteropus niger
        • Madagascan mega batPteropus rufus
        • Seychelles Fruit Bat, Pteropus seychellensis
        • Pemba mega batPteropus voeltzkowi
      • P. personatus species group
        • Bismark Masked mega batPteropus capistratus
        • Maskedmega batPteropus personatus
        • Temminck's mega batPteropus temminckii
      • P. poliocephalus species group
        • Big-eared mega batPteropus macrotis
        • Geelvink Bay mega batPteropus pohlei
        • Grey-headed mega batPteropus poliocephalus
      • P. pselaphon species group
        • Chuuk mega batPteropus insularis
        • Temotu mega batPteropus nitendiensis
        • Large Palau mega batPteropus pilosus (19th century †)
        • Bonin mega batPteropus pselaphon
        • Guam mega batPteropus tokudae (1970s †)
        • Insularmega batPteropus tonganus
        • Vanikoro mega batPteropus tuberculatus
        • New Caledonia mega batPteropus vetulus
      • P. samoensis species group
        • Vanuatu mega batPteropus anetianus
        • Samoa mega batPteropus samoensis
      • P. scapulatus species group
        • Gilliard's mega batPteropus gilliardorum
        • Lesser mega batPteropus mahaganus
        • Little Red mega batPteropus scapulatus
        • Dwarf mega batPteropus woodfordi
      • P. subniger species group
        • Admiralty mega batPteropus admiralitatum
        • Dusky mega batPteropus brunneus (19th century †)
        • Ryukyu mega batPteropus dasymallus
        • Nicobar mega batPteropus faunulus
        • Gray mega batPteropus griseus
        • Ontong Java mega batPteropus howensis
        • Small mega batPteropus hypomelanus
        • Ornate mega batPteropus ornatus
        • Little Golden-mantled mega batPteropus pumilus
        • Philippine Gray mega batPteropus speciosus
        • Small Mauritian mega batPteropus subniger (19th century †)
      • P. vampyrus species group
        • Indian mega batPteropus giganteus
        • Andersen's mega batPteropus intermedius
        • Lyle's mega batPteropus lylei
        • Large mega batPteropus vampyrus
      • incertae sedis
        • Small Samoan mega batPteropus allenorum (19th century †)
        • Large Samoan mega batPteropus coxi (19th century †)
    • Genus Styloctenium
      • Mindoro Stripe-faced Fruit Bat, Styloctenium mindorensis
      • Sulawesi Stripe-faced Fruit Bat, Styloctenium wallacei
  • Subfamily Rousettinae
    • Genus Eonycteris - dawn fruit bats
      • Greater Nectar Bat, Eonycteris major
      • Cave Nectar Bat, Eonycteris spelaea
      • Philippine Dawn Bat, Eonycteris robusta
    • Genus Rousettus - rousette fruit bats
      • Subgenus Boneia
        • Manado Fruit Bat, Rousettus (Boneia) bidens
      • Subgenus Rousettus
        • Geoffroy's Rousette, Rousettus amplexicaudatus
        • Sulawesi Rousette, Rousettus celebensis
        • Egyptian Rousette (Egyptian Fruit Bat), Rousettus aegyptiacus
        • Leschenault's Rousette, Rousettus leschenaulti
        • Linduan Rousette, Rousettus linduensis
        • Comoro Rousette, Rousettus obliviosus
        • Bare-backed Rousette, Rousettus spinalatus
      • Subgenus Stenonycteris
        • Long-haired Rousette, Rousettus (Stenonycteris) lanosus
        • Madagascar Rousette, Rousettus (Stenonycteris) madagascariensis
Subfamily Epomophorinae
  • Tribe Epomophorini
    • Genus Epomophorus - epauletted fruit bats
      • Angolan Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomophorus angolensis
      • Ansell's Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomophorus anselli
      • Peters's Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomophorus crypturus
      • Gambian Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomophorus gambianus
      • Lesser Angolan Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomophorus grandis
      • Ethiopian Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomophorus labiatus
      • East African Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomophorus minimus
      • Minor Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomophorus minor
      • Wahlberg's Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi
    • Genus Epomops - epauletted bats
      • Buettikofer's Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomops buettikoferi
      • Dobson's Fruit Bat, Epomops dobsoni
      • Franquet's Epauletted Fruit Bat, Epomops franqueti
    • Genus Hypsignathus
      • Hammer-headed Bat, Hypsignathus monstrosus
    • Genus Micropteropus - dwarf epauletted bats
      • Hayman's Dwarf Epauletted Fruit Bat, Micropteropus intermedius
      • Peter's Dwarf Epauletted Fruit Bat, Micropteropus pusillus
    • Genus Nanonycteris
      • Veldkamp's Dwarf Epauletted Fruit Bat, Nanonycteris veldkampii
  • Tribe Myonycterini
    • Genus Lissonycteris
      • Angolan Rousette, Lissonycteris angolensis
    • Genus Megaloglossus
      • Woermann's Bat, Megaloglossus woermanni
    • Genus Myonycteris - little collared fruit bats
      • São Tomé Collared Fruit Bat, Myonycteris brachycephala
      • East African Little Collared Fruit Bat, Myonycteris relicta
      • Little Collared Fruit Bat, Myonycteris torquata
  • Tribe Plerotini
    • Genus Plerotes
      • D'Anchieta's Fruit Bat, Plerotes anchietae
  • Tribe Scotonycterini
    • Genus Casinycteris
      • Short-palated Fruit Bat, Casinycteris argynnis
    • Genus Scotonycteris
      • Zenker's Fruit Bat, Scotonycteris zenkeri
      • Pohle's Fruit Bat, Scotonycteris ophiodon

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BATS. Megabats, Flying-foxes, Fruit bats and Microbats: Megabats
Megabats
information on Megabat, Megabats, Flyingfox, Flying-fox, Fruit bats, Flyingfoxes
BATS. Megabats, Flying-foxes, Fruit bats and Microbats
https://batsrule-helpsavewildlife.blogspot.com/p/megabats.html
https://batsrule-helpsavewildlife.blogspot.com/
http://batsrule-helpsavewildlife.blogspot.com/
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